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What Happened To Genie

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She had other signs of intelligence. The lights were on. Wiley showed that grammar becomes inexplicable to children without training between five and 10, but communication and language remains entirely attainable.

Genie definitely engaged with the world. She could draw in ways you would know exactly what she was communicating.

This demonstrated that language is different from thought. For Genie, her thoughts were virtually never verbally encoded, but there are many ways to think.

According to Psychology Today :. Of course, if you already are fluent in another language, the brain is already primed for language acquisition and you may well succeed in becoming fluent in a second or third language.

For one thing, each of the scientists on the team accused each other of abusing their position and relationships with Genie the feral child.

For instance, in , language teacher Jean Butler obtained permission to bring Wiley home with her for socialization purposes. She also saw that Genie Wiley was beginning puberty at this time, a sign that her health was strengthening.

The arrangement went along well enough for a time until Butler claimed she caught Rubella and would need to quarantine herself and Wiley.

Their temporary situation turned more permanent. She applied for the foster care of Wiley as well. Later, Butler was accused by other members of the team of exploiting Wiley.

They just connected and communicated somehow. And he would allow her to do her thing with it, and to do her thing, what her thing was, basically, was to explore it tactilely, to put it up against her lips and feel it with her lips and touch it, almost as if she were blind.

Rigler, too, recalled how one time a father and his young son carrying a fire engine passed by Wiley.

She never asked for it. She never said a word. She did this kind of thing, somehow, to people. Wikimedia Commons Genie Wiley was returned to foster care after the research on her ended.

She regressed in these environments and never regained speech. No one definitively discerned the exact reason for his dog-like behavior, although at least one scientist speculated he may have viewed himself as a guard dog and was acting out the role.

Genie developed a tendency to masturbate in socially inappropriate contexts, which led doctors to seriously consider the possibility that Genie's father subjected her to sexual abuse or forced her brother to do so, although they never uncovered any definite evidence.

Genie's father fed Genie as little as possible and refused to give her solid food, feeding her only baby food, cereal, Pablum , an occasional soft-boiled egg, and liquids.

Her father, or when coerced, her brother, spooned food into her mouth as quickly as possible, and if she choked or could not swallow fast enough the person feeding her rubbed her face in her food.

Genie's mother claimed her husband always fed Genie three times a day but also said that Genie sometimes risked a beating by making noise when hungry, leading researchers to believe he often refused to feed her.

This sleep pattern continued for several months after being taken away from her father. Genie's father had an extremely low tolerance for noise , to the point of refusing to have a working television or radio in the house.

He almost never allowed his wife or son to talk and viciously beat them if they did so without permission, particularly forbidding them to speak to or around Genie.

Any conversation between them was therefore very quiet and out of Genie's earshot, preventing her from hearing any meaningful amount of language.

On rare occasions he allowed Genie to play with plastic food containers, old spools of thread, TV Guides with many of the illustrations cut out, and the raincoats.

Throughout this time, Genie's father almost never permitted anyone else to leave the house, only allowing his son to go to and from school and requiring him to prove his identity through various means before entering, and to discourage disobedience he frequently sat in the living room with a shotgun in his lap.

He did not allow anyone else in or near the house, and kept his gun nearby in case someone did come. Genie's mother was passive by nature and almost completely blind throughout this time.

Her husband continued to beat her and threatened to kill her if she attempted to contact her parents, close friends who lived nearby, or the police.

In October , when Genie was approximately 13 years and six months old, Genie's parents had a violent argument in which her mother threatened to walk out if she could not call her own parents.

Her husband eventually relented, and later that day she left with Genie when he was out of the house and went to her parents in Monterey Park ; Genie's brother, by then 18, had already run away from home and was living with friends.

Genie's parents were arrested and Genie became a ward of the court , and due to her physical condition and near-total unsocialized state a court order was immediately issued for Genie to be taken to the Children's Hospital Los Angeles.

Upon Genie's admission to Children's Hospital, David Rigler, a therapist and University of Southern California psychology professor who was the chief psychologist at the hospital, and Howard Hansen, then the head of the psychiatry division and an early expert on child abuse, took direct control of Genie's care.

The following day they assigned physician James Kent, another early advocate for child abuse awareness, to conduct the first examinations of her.

Even after its conclusion, there were a large number of unresolved questions about Genie's childhood that subsequent research never answered.

News of Genie reached major media outlets on November 17, receiving a great deal of local and national attention, and the one photograph authorities released of Genie significantly fueled public interest in her.

On November 20, the morning before a scheduled court appearance on child abuse charges, he committed suicide by gunshot.

One note—sources conflict as to which—contained the declaration, "The world will never understand. After Genie's father committed suicide, authorities and hospital staff exclusively focused on Genie and her mother; years later Genie's brother said his mother soon began dedicating all of her love and attention to Genie, after which he left the Los Angeles area.

She told the court that the beatings from her husband and her near-total blindness had left her unable to protect her children.

James Kent stated that his initial examinations of Genie revealed by far the most severe case of child abuse he would ever encounter, and he came away extremely pessimistic about Genie's prognosis.

She had two nearly full sets of teeth in her mouth and a distended abdomen. Genie's gross motor skills were extremely weak; she could neither stand up straight nor fully straighten any of her limbs, and had very little endurance.

Doctors found it extremely difficult to test or estimate Genie's mental age or any of her cognitive abilities, but on two attempts they found Genie scored at the level of a month-old.

She seemed especially curious about unfamiliar sounds, and Kent noted how intently she searched for their sources.

From the start Genie showed interest in many hospital staff members, often approaching and walking with complete strangers, but Kent said she did not seem to distinguish between people and showed no signs of attachment to anybody, including her mother and brother.

Genie's behavior was typically highly antisocial and proved extremely difficult for others to control. Regardless of where she was she constantly salivated and spat, and continually sniffed and blew her nose on anything that happened to be nearby.

Doctors wrote that she acted on impulse irrespective of the setting, especially noting that she frequently engaged in open masturbation and would sometimes attempt to involve older men in it.

From the start Genie showed a small amount of responsiveness to nonverbal information, including gestures and facial expressions from other people, and made reasonably good eye contact.

To make noise, she would push chairs or other similar objects. Linguists later discerned that, in January , Genie showed an understanding of only her own name, the names of a few others, and about 15—20 words, and her active vocabulary at the time consisted of two phrases, "stop it" and "no more".

They could not determine the extent of her expressive or receptive vocabulary at any point before January , and therefore did not know whether she had acquired any or all of these words during the preceding two months.

Within a month after Genie's admission to Children's Hospital, Jay Shurley, a professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at the University of Oklahoma and a specialist in extreme social isolation, took an interest in her case.

Shurley noted that Genie's was the most severe case of isolation he had ever studied or heard about, which he maintained more than 20 years later.

Shurley found no signs of brain damage but observed a few persistent abnormalities in Genie's sleep, including a significantly reduced amount of REM sleep with a variance in duration much larger than average, and an unusually high number of sleep spindles bursts of rhythmic or repetitive neural activity.

Much later, for example, Susan Curtiss emphatically argued that, though Genie clearly had serious emotional difficulties, she could not have been retarded.

She pointed out that Genie made a year's developmental progress for every calendar year after her rescue, which would not be expected if her condition was congenital, and that some aspects of language Genie acquired were uncharacteristic of mentally retarded people.

In his first meeting with Genie, James Kent initially observed no reactions from her but eventually drew a small amount of nonverbal and verbal responsiveness with a small puppet.

Playing with this and similar puppets quickly became her favorite activity and, apart from her tantrums, accounted for most of the few times she expressed any emotion during the early part of her stay.

Genie quickly began growing and putting on weight and steadily became more confident in her movements, and by December she had good eye—hand coordination and was much better at focusing her eyes.

During the first few months of her stay, giving her one of these objects could bring her out of a tantrum. After a few weeks Genie became much more responsive to other people, and shortly afterward began paying attention to people speaking, but at first, she remained mostly unexpressive and it was unclear whether she responded more to verbal or nonverbal stimuli.

Around the same time it was noted that Genie took pleasure in intentionally dropping or destroying small objects, and enjoyed watching someone else do the same to something she had been playing with.

She did not have the same reaction to recordings, and if someone played anything other than classical music she would change the sheet music to a book which she knew had pieces she liked.

By December , Kent and the other hospital staff working with Genie saw her as a potential case study subject. That month David Rigler obtained a small grant from the National Institute of Mental Health NIMH to do preliminary studies on her, and began organizing a research team to submit a larger request.

Around the same time, doctors noted that she was very interested in people speaking and that she attempted to mimic some speech sounds. By April and May , Genie's scores on the Leiter International Performance Scale tests had dramatically increased, with her overall mental age at the level of a typical 4-yearmonth-old, but on individual components she still showed a very high level of scatter.

However, she still had a hard time being with large crowds of people; at her birthday party, she became so anxious at all the guests present that she had to go outside with Rigler to calm down.

During the later part of Genie's stay at the hospital, she also started engaging in physical play with adults, and eventually began to enjoy giving and receiving hugs.

This was both her first exhibition of a sense of possession over items she thought were hers but was otherwise impartial towards and the first time she directed her anger outwards, but she did not entirely stop harming herself when angry.

Beginning in January scientists conducted a series of neurolinguistic tests on Genie to determine and monitor the course and extent of her mental development, making her the first language-deprived child to undergo any detailed study of her brain.

Over the following years multiple tests of her handedness supported this conclusion, as did observations of her in everyday situations.

Such an extreme level of asymmetry on these tests had previously only been documented in patients with either split-brain or who had undergone a hemispherectomy as an adult.

On non-language dichotic listening tests, she showed a slight preference for identifying non-language sounds in her left ear, which was typical for a right-handed person and helped rule out the possibility of her brain only being reversed in dominance for language.

Based on these results, Bellugi and Klima believed that Genie had been developing as a typical right-handed person until the time her father began isolating her.

They attributed the imbalance between Genie's hemispheres to the fact that Genie's sensory input as a child was almost exclusively visual and tactile, stimulating functions which are predominantly controlled in the right hemisphere of a right-handed person, and although this input had been extremely minimal it was sufficient to cause their lateralization to the right hemisphere.

Since Genie accurately distinguished speech sounds with her right hemisphere, they thought her language functions had lateralized there instead. At the time of Genie's admission to Children's Hospital there was wide discussion in both lay and academic circles about the hypotheses of Noam Chomsky , who had first suggested that language was innate to humans and distinguishes humans from all other animals, and Eric Lenneberg , who in hypothesized that humans have a critical period for language acquisition and defined its end as the onset of puberty.

Though ancient and medieval texts made several references to language deprivation experiments modern researchers labeled such ideas "The Forbidden Experiment", impossible to carry out for ethical reasons.

The movie was a major success, and further heightened public interest in cases of children subjected to extreme abuse or isolation. Prompted by this coincidence of timing, David Rigler led a team of scientists who sought and obtained a three-year grant from the NIMH to study Genie in May At the suggestion of Jean Butler, Genie's special education teacher at the hospital, they screened The Wild Child during their first meeting, and the scientists later said the film had an immediate and profound impact.

To the surprise of several scientists involved in the grant meetings, Rigler decided the primary focus of the study would be to test Chomsky and Lenneberg's hypotheses and selected UCLA linguistics professor Victoria Fromkin to head linguistic evaluation.

From the time of her admission to Children's Hospital researchers had tried to keep her identity concealed, and it was around this time that they adopted the pseudonym Genie for her, referencing similarities between a genie coming out of a lamp without having a childhood and Genie's sudden emergence into society past childhood.

Soon after the NIMH accepted the grant proposal, in late May , Susan Curtiss began her work on Genie's case as a graduate student in linguistics under Victoria Fromkin, and for the remainder of Genie's stay at Children's Hospital Curtiss met with Genie almost every day.

Over the following month, she and Genie very quickly bonded with each other. At around the same time Curtiss began her work, doctors reevaluated Genie on the Leiter scale and measured her on the Stanford—Binet Intelligence Scale , which placed her estimated mental age between a 5- and 8-year-old with a very high degree of scatter.

Near the end of that month, after one of these trips, Butler told the hospital that she Butler might have contracted rubella , to which Genie would have been exposed.

Hospital staff were reluctant to give foster custody to Butler and were very skeptical of her story, strongly suspecting she had concocted it as part of a bid to take over as Genie's guardian and primary caretaker, but decided that placing Genie in an isolation ward at the hospital could potentially be highly damaging to her social and psychological development, so they agreed to temporarily quarantine her in Butler's home.

Soon after moving in with Butler, Genie started showing the first signs of reaching puberty , marking a dramatic improvement in her overall physical health and definitively putting her past Lenneberg's proposed critical period for language acquisition.

Butler wrote that Genie could eventually tolerate fenced dogs, but that there was no progress with cats. In her journal, Butler wrote that she had gotten Genie to stop attacking herself when angry and had taught Genie to instead express her anger through words or by hitting objects.

Butler also claimed that, shortly after moving in with her, Genie had become noticeably more talkative and that she had made substantial progress with her language acquisition.

Genie's incontinence gradually improved until, by the end of her stay, she was almost entirely continent. Genie's mother continued to visit Genie, and around the time Genie moved in with Butler, Genie's mother received corrective cataract surgery which restored much of her vision.

During Genie's stay, Butler had the man she was dating move in with her, believing that authorities would view her pending foster application more favorably if she offered a two-parent home.

Researchers believed Butler had good intentions for Genie, but criticized Butler's unwillingness to work with them and thought she negatively affected Genie's care and the case study.

They strongly contested Butler's claims of pushing Genie too hard, contending that she enjoyed the tests and could take breaks at will, and both Curtiss and Kent emphatically denied Butler's accusations towards them.

In mid-August, California authorities informed Butler they had rejected her application for foster custody. Rigler maintained several times that despite the scientists' objections neither the hospital nor any of its staff had intervened, and said the authorities' decision surprised him.

In early August, Hansen suggested to Rigler that he take custody of Genie if authorities rejected Butler's application, and Rigler initially balked at the idea but decided to talk it over with his wife, Marilyn; Marilyn had graduate training as a social worker and had just completed a graduate degree in human development , and had previously worked in nursery schools and Head Start Programs.

The Riglers had three adolescent children of their own, which Jay Shurley later said made them consider themselves more suitable guardians for Genie than Butler.

Rigler acknowledged the proposed arrangement would clearly put him in a dual relationship with her, but Children's Hospital and authorities decided that, in the absence of other adequate options, they would consent to make the Riglers Genie's temporary foster parents.

On the same day, Genie went back to the hospital, the Riglers had Genie transferred to their home in Los Feliz. David Rigler said that he and Marilyn initially intended the arrangement to last for a maximum of three months, but Genie ultimately stayed with them for almost four years.

While Genie lived with the Riglers her mother usually met with her once a week at a park or restaurant, and their relationship continued to grow stronger.

With the exception of Jay Shurley, who later said he felt the other scientists did not treat her as an equal, Genie's mother did not get along well with the other researchers, some of whom disliked her due to her apathy during Genie's childhood.

Jean Butler, who married shortly after authorities removed Genie from her house and began using her married name, Ruch, stayed in touch with Genie's mother.

Although Genie's mother later recalled that most of their conversations during this time were shallow in nature, they continued to get along very well.

Without any obvious cause, Genie's incontinence immediately resurfaced, and was especially severe for the first few weeks after she moved in but persisted at a lower level for several months.

They also wrote that Genie was extremely frightened of their dog, and upon seeing it for the first time she immediately ran and hid.

The research team recorded her speech being much more halting and hesitant than Ruch had described, writing that Genie very rarely spoke and that, for the first three months of her stay, almost always used one-word utterances.

She continued to have a very difficult time controlling her impulses, frequently engaging in highly anti-social and destructive behavior.

Shortly after Genie moved in, Marilyn taught her to direct her frustrations outward by generally "having a fit. Although the scientists did not yet know the reason for Genie's fear of cats and dogs the Riglers used their puppy in an effort to acclimate her, and after approximately two weeks she entirely overcame her fear of their dog but continued to be extremely afraid of unfamiliar cats and dogs.

Marilyn worked with Genie to help overcome her ongoing difficulty with chewing and swallowing, which took approximately four months.

She also tried to help Genie become more attuned to her body's sensations, and in late Curtiss recorded the first instance of Genie showing sensitivity to temperature.

At first, Genie usually did not listen to anyone unless someone directly addressed her or if Curtiss played classical music on the piano, and if someone spoke to her she almost never acknowledged the other person and usually walked away after a while.

After that, she paid attention to people even when they were not speaking directly to or about her. She became somewhat more sociable in her interactions with people and became somewhat more responsive, although she still frequently showed no obvious signs that she heard someone.

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